The Coming Dawn 

Brandon Dudley
Online Editor 

A chill overcame Boris as he leaned against what remained of the wooden wall of The Drunken Dancer. Embers softly simmered amongst the ruins from the fire that had destroyed the once-grand brawling tavern in the wake of Kor’s attack upon the city of Menzysii. Trying his best to control his breath in the frigid night and pressured circumstances, Boris leaned further into the wall.  

A creak from the weakened wood threatened his position in the still night. The patrolling automaton just outside of the tavern’s remains turned a mechanical head towards the sound and began to stride rhythmically in that direction.  

With a silent curse, Boris readied the makeshift cudgel in his right hand for the oncoming foe. It had been roughly a week since the fall of his city, but in those critical days he had learned much about surviving in this hostile environment. Being the primary person leading the rescue operations in the city ruins, he had needed to learn fast.  

As the shadow of the automaton passed through the doorway just ahead, Boris leapt with an elegance unknown prior to his current lifestyle. The large man had once worked as a dock worker in the city harbor but had always weaseled his way into the easier and less work-intensive jobs. Years of such tactful avoidance had left him lazy and unfit; something he had regretted greatly in the wake of the assault.  

The automaton let out a mechanical grunt in surprise as Boris attacked and attempted to raise its arms in defense, but it was too late. Cudgel met with metal and cudgel won. A bright spark of blue energy erupted from the head of the automaton as its head exploded in a flurry of shrapnel.  

Acting in quick succession with Boris’s strike, a dwarven woman leapt from the side opposite the doorway and caught the automaton as it fell from the attack. Easing the body down, Elena pulled the body to where she had come from and set it into the shadows. Then, with a thumb that was crooked to the side from past life experiences, she let Boris know they were safe to proceed.  

Boris looked to the group huddled behind him and gave a toothy smile, waving them forward. He did not know what fate had brought him to this point in life, smuggling people he had never known out of a warzone. He had never been much of a charitable man in his past life or one to go out of his way for others. The docks had been a dog-eat-dog world at times, and that ruthless existence had shaped Boris into what he had become.  

But the invasion had changed him and in these dark days, despite it still being a dog-eat-dog world, he knew if he did not change his ways that he and the rest of his people might die out completely.  

Off in the distance, a beam of light began to emanate upon the horizon as the sun began its slow descent up. And so it was that a once lazy and selfish man continued to lead a party of seven out of the ruined city of Menzysii.  

Final Approach

Lynda Roberts Tribute 

Lynda Roberts pictured on right, Laura Alexander Supervisor of Scholar’s Cafe Prescott campus pictured on left

“ Lynda made each and every day at Embry Riddle a special day with her Disney-eskapproach to life, she could engage anyone in conversation and more often than not spread laughter along the way.  She actually worked at Disneyland in Anaheim and had met Walt Disney on more than one occasion, and it stuck with her that magic, as she could love you without even knowing you, especially if you were an Embry Riddle Student or employee.” 

-Christine Repp 

“Lynda Roberts worked for me for about 3 years at ERAU. She worked at ERAU Dining Services for over 15 years. Lynda was this ethereal person who seemed to touch everyone around hers’ life. No one who knew her ever forgot her.  She was so special. I saw her about 5 days before she passed.  I did not think she was going anywhere. She still had a radiance about her and concern for everyone but herself. I thought hospice might be wrong.  I know she would still be here if her body had not given out. She loved all the students here even more than they loved her.” 

-Rebecca Rother 

“Dear Campus Community, 

I am so saddened to hear of the passing of Lynda Roberts. She was a wonderful person, a great asset to our newspaper and campus community for her many years of creative contributions to Horizons. “The Lunch Lady,” we sometimes called her—always preparing something savory in her kitchen full of ideas! She gave so much to student life on our campus, and expressed in words her love of ERAU like no other I have known… RIP Lynda!” 

-Dr. Alan Malnar 

“Lynda had such a kind soul and never failed to put a smile on the faces of all that knew her. She contributed greatly to Horizons for as long as I knew and always loved writing for us. She had the sweetest heart and always greeted me with hugs and kind thoughts. I will always miss her smiling face and her caring spirit.” 

-Julia Mihaylov, Horizons Editor in Chief 

Featured Features Final Approach

Camera Science #5: The Viewfinder, Light Meter, and Exposures 

By Joseph Grosjean, Photographer and Photograph Editor
Final Approach 

Last issue we looked at the final point in the exposure triangle, ISO, and what to avoid when adjusting this setting. This issue will cover how to use the viewfinder, a light meter, and some basics on how to apply the exposure triangle to create a perfectly exposed image. First, we will look at how an image is formed on the viewfinder: 

After light passes through the lens of the camera it is reflected by a mirror inside the camera body. This mirror is in front of the shutter and flips up when the exposure is taken. After reflecting off the mirror the light then passes through a pentaprism housed in the top of the camera body. The pentaprism flips the image so it displays correctly. Finally, the light is then projected onto a screen in the viewfinder. Below the viewfinder there is a string of numbers and letters. These provide the photographer with what settings they are using such as shutter speed, aperture size, ISO, and a light meter. This screen can move back and forth by turning a knob so that the information at the bottom is in focus. 

The light meter is a sensor that detects how much light is in an image. It does so through the lens (TTL) rather than an external sensor on the camera body. In the early days of photography, the light meter was exclusively a handheld device with a gauge on it. A lot of film photographers still use this type of light meter as their cameras do not have one built in. Film camera manufacturers did begin to include built-in light meters, usually a needle inside the viewfinder to the side of the image, towards the end of the 20th century. Today the light meter can be found digitally displayed in the viewfinder and on the camera body LCD screen.  

The light meter displays a relative scale showing a bar on the (-) if the image is underexposed and a bar on the (+) if the image is overexposed. A properly exposed image will have a single line under the (0). See the examples below: 

To have that properly exposed reading on the light meter you must adjust the settings of the exposure triangle until balance is achieved. Do not do this randomly though, remember the effects that each setting has: if the shutter speed is too slow, motion blur will occur. If the aperture is too large, depth of field effects will be added. If the ISO is too high, your image will appear grainy. 

When I adjust my settings I typically begin with opening my aperture all the way as depth of field effects are often desirable and are unnoticeable unless the focal length is high, and the subject is close. Next, I set my ISO to 100 for most circumstances, and will only raise it if my shutter speed will be too slow, causing motion blur. I then adjust my shutter speed until the light meter reads a perfect exposure. If the shutter speed is less than 1/80s then I will raise the ISO, but typically no higher than 400. Keep in mind this is a general way to set your camera in manual mode but is by no means the law. If I am trying to get an effect, say star bursts or motion blur, then I will adjust the aperture or shutter speed first, respectively, then everything is set after. 

Go out and try this. If you think the image is overexposed or underexposed, do not be afraid to leave the light meter behind and experiment. Remember, the reason photographers use manual mode is to create interesting images that cannot be made when the camera chooses the settings. 

Featured Features Final Approach

Column of Whatever: Step Away from the Keyboard Once in a While 

By John Mills
Diversions Editor  

The internet has some problems. Also in the news, water is wet, the Pope is Catholic, and there will be continuing unrest in the Middle East. What I want to focus on is the popularization of ideologies as holy writ.

I’m not the first to comment on these issues. I missed the mark on that one by years. However, like everyone, I like to think my opinion has merit—and yes, I see the contradiction with my previous sentence.  

The volcanic dumpster fire that was the 2016 election brought some things to the forefront that hadn’t been quite so clear before. In the context of this column, I’m talking about the magnifying power of the internet.

More specifically, the power that a relatively small group of people, likely not far north of half a million by the time of the election, can have on the national discourse. It’s not uncommon to hear the Reddit and 4chan “memed a president into office.”

There is some unfortunate validity to that. Not in so much as they did a great deal to help Donald Trump’s campaign, but to slew the national discourse from something that could resemble issue-based discourse into a competition as to who could fling the most trash at the other side.

Hillary Clinton did herself no favors by continuously acting throughout the campaign like she had the whole thing in the bag from the start, but the amplifying voice of the internet, good and bad, should not be dismissed.  

Moreover, the power that the internet has in radicalizing and calcifying ideologies into something that is not to be questioned but obeyed must be recognized. There have always been people on the fringes of the political spectrum, left and right.

The Soviets had a good swing at making a functional government out of this kind of political radicalism for over seventy years, but it ended in economic catastrophe and the fall of the largest contiguous land power since Genghis Khan.

Critically, it failed, as extremism and radicalism always must fail. When ideas cannot be questioned or debated, they are no longer truly ideas, they are mental slavery. We’re seeing signs of this all over the internet in general.

Groups of like-minded individuals form a community with good intentions, and then find themselves yelling into the void when someone deviates from what they consider acceptable. Reddit’s r/the_donald, 4chan’s /pol/ board, and some sections of Tumblr are the easiest, most visible, examples of this. To go against the group think in these communities is to invite chastisement and scorn at best, and death threats and doxxing at worst.  

I love the internet. I spend way too much time there. It is a resource unlike any available in the history of mankind before it and holds great promise for the future. But at some point, people need to step away from the invincibility of the keyboard, and go talk to somebody in real life.

Then again, maybe we’d prefer these kinds of people stayed behind the keyboard where we didn’t have to deal with them. Either way, go out and smell the roses before someone burns them for disagreeing with his ideas. 

Final Approach

The Investigation of Burnt Toast  

By: Brandon Dudley 
Online Editor 

The heat of the room was sweltering beyond comfort as stream driven engines pumped their pistons furiously.

A mechanical din bounced off steel walls and a haze of steam hung lazily in the air making it hard to see much beyond 10 feet of oneself.

Within the haze were two figures: one standing elegantly and one kneeling in submission.  

Kor looked to the bound orange robed man before him, a demeaning smile crossing his face at his beaten enemy. “Ah magic,” Kor started, pacing from side to side as he continued to watch the mage. The coat of his tuxedo suit swayed with him as he moved, its tail swishing on the metallic floor. “The manipulation of the elements for one’s own purposes,” he commented, then paused looking down in anticipation  

No response from the mage, still in recluse within his robes with head bowed.  

“Truly unlimited potential within the hands of any who wield it or are brave enough to endeavor into its wondrous realms,” Kor spoke as if it were a rehearsed speech.  

The mage tilted his head up a bit, an expression of defiance on his face. It appeared to Kor that clenched teeth were all that kept back a retort.

The wizened features on the middle-aged man’s face bespoke years of study and time spent practicing the magical arts.  

Kor took interest into this. Tightening his top hat’s hold on his head, Kor knelt down to be at face level with the man.

“What is it? Do you believe my words false?” He inquired, honestly curious.  

“You know nothing. You are blinded by your own falsehoods,” came a disbelieving growl from the captive, shaking his head with the last sentence.  

Offended, Kor exhaled out of annoyance. “Well now, that was rude…” he scoffed.  

“It’s true,” the mage came face to face with Kor showing bloodshot eyes. “You believe that any who wield it can have unlimited power. That those who are willing to be ‘brave’ enough to search its realms can find some vault of untold knowledge. But that’s not how this works. Magic is not something you play around with like a child with their toys!”   

The intensity at which the mage spoke caught Kor’s attention.  

“Magic is the manipulation of chaos, of the bindings to life itself. Not just the elements. And one does not simply do as they wish on a whim. One must be strictly trained and disciplined to handle such things!” the man chastised further, growing red in the face; whether from the heat of his own emotions Kor was not completely certain.  

Kor laughed, “Magic is for the powerful to attain and utilize for the greater good my little pumpkin. And I, the mighty Kor, have mixed magic with machine to create life perfected. How can one be more powerful?” 

“By not being a slave to your own misgivings…” The mage murmured, dropping his head down again, seeming to finally give up. “You may have mixed machine and magic, but this does not mean you have perfected life. What you are doing, is perfecting murder. You are killing nations you deem ‘unworthy’…”  

That was it. Kor had had enough of the man. Calling to his assistant, Kor finalized his decision. “SHAI, please dispose of this man, thank you.”  

Kor stood up and walked away, hands clasped behind back. The man began to say something, but a loud burst of steam cut him off abruptly.  

As Kor left the room he smelt burnt toast, a very distasteful smell at that. His engine room should not smell of such things.

And was that a scream he heard intermingled with the sharp hiss from the steam?

“Guess I will have to invent something to take care of that then,” shrugged Kor as he continued through his city, onto the next prisoner to question.  


Final Approach Short Story

Camera Science #3: Camera Shutter and Motion Blur 

By: Joseph Grosjean
Photographer and Photograph Editor 


Last issue we discussed how an aperture controls the amount of light entering the camera body, as well as depth of field effects.

This issue we will explore the purpose of the shutter in a camera, and the effects that can be created with a proficiency in shutter control. 

The shutter is in the camera body and its original purpose was to keep film from being exposed before the photographer wants to take the photograph, sort of like keeping the film in a dark room, then opening the window blinds for a split second.

Due to the sensitivity of the film this small amount of time is enough to create an image, and this process will be discussed in more detail next issue.

This principle is still used in modern digital cameras which allows the use of higher efficiency image sensors.

Some camera manufacturers have experimented with cameras without shutters.

The benefits of this are lighter camera bodies, and no “clacking” of the shutter when you take a photograph.

The drawbacks are that there must be control over each pixel in the image sensor which makes these camera bodies expensive compared to their shuttered counter-parts. 

The shutter is the second of the three points on the exposure triangle, the first being the aperture.

If an aperture can be compared to a pipe of different diameters, with a larger diameter pipe allowing in more light, and a smaller diameter pipe allowing in less, then the shutter is comparable to a valve, allowing in a precise amount of light.

Too much and the image will be overexposed, in other words the image will appear too bright, possibly completely white.

Too little light and the image will be underexposed, or too dark. The goal of a balanced exposure is to avoid both extremes, and the ways to accomplish this will be discussed in a later issue.  

Now you wish to take a photograph. As a photographer it is your job to ensure that the image you produce is interesting, otherwise people will not be drawn to your work.

This can be accomplished through lighting, framing, depth of field effects, and many other techniques that can be used to create breathtaking images.

The shutter speed plays a large role in this artistic side of photography, and you must think, do I want the image to be sharp and crisp, capturing a tiny sliver of time, or do I want to create a sense of motion by allowing parts of the subject or background to be blurred out. This is what you must consider before taking a photograph.  

Typically, your shutter speeds will be in the range of 1/80 – 1/4000 of a second depending on the desired effects, the environment, and your other settings, but anything under 1/80 of a second will be subjected to motion blur.

Motion blur is not always a bad thing, as listed above, and one of the best techniques that uses motion blur is called panning.

In this technique a slow shutter speed is used, around 1/15 – 1/30 of a second.

The photographer pans the camera to keep the subject (moving) centered in the viewfinder as the image is taken.

The effect this creates is a frozen subject and a streaked background, which creates an exaggerated sense of motion.  

Mastery of the shutter is one of the most important skills a photographer can master and is the setting that is changed most often from photograph to photograph.

Next issue we will investigate the last point on the exposure triangle, ISO or ASA, and both film and digital methods of capturing images.  

Final Approach

Column of Whatever: Post Spring Break Panic Edition

By: John Mills
Diversions Editor

Spring break is over now, somewhat unfortunately. As we sit on the precipice of the post-spring-break sprint to the end of the year, I think it’s a good time to think about literally anything else.

The end of the year is just too insane and stressful to think about without turning around and running as fast as I can in the other direction.

Deliberate ignorance to problems never goes wrong, does it?

In the news over the last few days has been the emerging story of a so called “trade war” with China.

This started when President Trump levied an estimated $50 billion worth of tariffs on Chinese-made imports to the US.

Said tariff is intended to level the perceived trade deficit between the US and China, but mostly has just angered newly-cemented president-for-life Xi Jinping.

This is while President Trump is also seeking China’s aid in defusing the seething ball of pent up angst that is the North Korea situation.

Somehow, this combination of moves doesn’t exactly seem like something out of the fictional “International Relations Power Plays Playbook.”

The stated reason behind this first set of tariffs is the blatant disregard the Chinese populace tends to have for intellectual property rights.

This state of affairs is hardly anything new though. Intellectual property violations have never been prosecuted heavily in China, which is part of why so much of their technology is reverse-engineered versions of other countries’ inventions.

Doing this was necessary for them in the late 1970s through to the beginning of the 1990s and beyond.

History lesson time: At the turn of the 20th century, the Chinese government and people were essentially structured the same as they had been three hundred years previous, except for the repeated shin kicking, then removal, they suffered at the hands of the British.

Post-WWII, and once the Communists secured victory over the Nationalist Guo Min Dang, China was severely behind the rest of the world both technologically and socially.

Much of the population lived in rural communities and farmed for a living.

Their cities had been ravaged by several decades of continuous war, and there was little remaining industrial base.

Several methods were taken to rectify this state of affairs, largely under the auspices of Mao’s “Great Leap Forward.”

What does this mean for the present? Well, a lot actually. More than can fit in one column. Probably more than can fit in one book, though many have tried.

In very broad and general terms, it means China isn’t likely to start heavily prosecuting intellectual property violations, and the US is going to continue to be mad about it.

Let’s hope it doesn’t get any worse than that.

Also, as a last word. Keep your head up through the end of the year. It’s tough in many ways, and no one needs the extra stress, but it’ll be over before you know it, for better or for worse.

Final Approach

Camera Science #4: Image Sensor, Film, ISO, and Noise 

By Joseph Grosjean,
Photographer and Photograph Editor 

In this issue we will discuss the final point on the exposure triangle, ISO, but first we must understand how the camera captures an image. 

As discussed previously, light passes through lens elements at the front of the camera which redirects the light to a single point. When the light as this point is projected onto a surface it forms an image, which can be magnified by moving the positions of the individual lens elements. Before the light is project though it passes through an aperture which assists in controlling the amount of light which makes it to the camera body. The aperture can also further sharpen the light by shrinking the size hole. Finally, the light is projected on the back of the camera body where the shutter protects the film or image sensor is housed. When the shutter opens, and image is captured. 

Camera film is essentially silver halide suspended in gelatin and spread on a plastic sheet. When the silver halide is exposed to light it darkens at a rate proportional to how bright the image is. In this way something bright such as the sun will appear dark while objects that are not as bright, such as the ground, will appear lighter. What we are left with is a negative of the image where all the brightness values are the reverse of what they should be. The photograph must now be developed to make the brightness values appear correctly. Because of the extreme light sensitivity of the silver halide it is important that the film is not prematurely exposed to light, which is why film is loaded in a dark room, the inside of the camera is kept dark by the shutter, and when the film is developed it must be done in a dark room to keep the image from further exposure. The reason for the red light is that red is a low energy light so any effect the light will have on the film will be minimal. On the other hand, a digital image sensor is a collection of digital light sensors which each capture a pixel. When assembled together the pixels form an image.  

The sensitivity of the film was originally called ASA which stood for the American Standards Association. Today the sensitivity is referred to as ISO standing for the International Standards Organization. Both systems use the same scale, just different names, so ASA 100 is the same as ISO 100. ISO is a system used both on film and D-SLR’s alike. To change the sensitivity on a film camera, a new roll of film must be loaded in with the desired ISO value, whereas on a D-SLR the ISO can be selected from the camera’s shooting menu. This makes D-SLR’s far more versatile and require a lot less planning if you plan to shoot in some especially dark situations, like a club, a basketball court (they are basically dungeons), or the night sky.  

An excellent place to start is ISO 100 which is used for outdoor photography. For gym’s I typically go for ISO 400-500, and it’s here that I stop for all but the strangest circumstances. As you increase the sensitivity of the film or image sensor, more and more noise is introduced into the image. You have seen this before if you have ever taken a picture in a dark room and have noticed dark specs all over your image, almost like static.  

Now that we know the three points on the exposure triangle, aperture, shutter, and ISO, we can create a balanced exposure. There are a few ways to do this, one is trial and error, another is rules of thumb, such as Basic Daylight Exposure (BDE), and finally there are light meters. Next issue we will explore the viewfinder, light meters, and how to choose the settings on the camera. In the meantime, try going outside on a sunny day and using BDE, which uses the setting of ƒ16, 1/125s, and ISO 100.  

Featured Features Final Approach

Column of Whatever: Movie Pandering Induces Salt 

By John Mills
Diversions Editor 

Seeing Pacific Rim Uprising brought something to the forefront of my attention that I didn’t expect to be thinking about this week: how blatant some of the pandering to Chinese audiences has become in American blockbusters. This trend is nothing new, and some have been bemoaning it for several years now, if not longer. It’s a natural development of a couple of factors; namely, increasing media consumption on the part of the Chinese public, and the expansion of the involvement of studio involvement in films. Now, I know just enough about how movies are made to know that I don’t know enough to accurately talk about the process, but “studio meddling” is often cited as a primary reason for why a movie didn’t turn out the way a director wanted. There’s a line I have to walk carefully here, between reasonable frustration, and just old-fashioned racism. 

Its naive to say that movies are “just art.” Some, naturally are, but to call $100 million blockbusters “just art” is facile. There is obviously an economic aspect to the equation, especially for movies made with the funding of big studios. For movies with huge budgets, A-list casting, and a CGI crew big enough to rival some small cities, there needs to be a return on investment. In a similar vein, US media is, by and large, the world baseline. It’s hard to escape American media around the world in some form or another without completely cutting yourself off from the grid, and even then, some ad jingle will be bouncing around in your head for eternity. This is why the really big money-making movies always make more outside the US than inside it, the market is naturally larger. Properties like the Avengers and Star Wars have basic mass market appeal that net those films hundreds of millions in profit. This is not the problem. The problem stems from the tier of blockbuster-style films that deliberately pander to foreign audiences to ensure those few extra bucks.  

The fourth Transformers film was a particularly egregious example of this. The third act moves to Hong Kong, has random chunks of dialogue spoken in Chinese, and shows every Chinese character, including those within the notoriously backlogged Chinese Communist Party, as an effective and decisive hero. It’s almost insulting for how saccharine it is. Pacific Rim Uprising does something similar. Like I said in my review of Uprising, the first Pacific Rim may have been largely set in Hong Kong, but it doesn’t feel forced. That’s just where they are. The foreign language spoken in that movie is little bits of Japanese between Mako Mori and her adoptive father, played by Idris Elba. In Uprising, we get a beautiful Chinese tech entrepreneur who saves the day at the last second out of nowhere, with no real interaction with the heroes before that. Its clumsy, forced, and plays to what I guess could be called an sense of Chinese exceptionalism.  

There’s an understandable desire to appeal to broader audiences, especially for those financing these films. That being said, most of the time it feels hamfisted and blunt. There has to be a middle ground that will both raise the appeal for foreign audiences without feeling so much like pandering. I believe in you Hollywood, you can do this one, simple thing. 

Final Approach

Individualism versus Inclusivity 

By Zoe Crain
Copy Editor 

The intellect’s argument to inclusivity, or the idea of ensuring all people have equal seats at the table, is individualism. The argument is that it is better for equality for one to be successful on a personal level than to intentionally go out of the way to include those who would not normally be included. For then, as successful people span all colors, races, and genders, everyone will be represented accurately. 

In a perfect world, in a perfect society, this is of course the best way to ensure everyone is equal: in an unbiased way, reward those who prove their worth. 

The problem with this ideation is that we, as humans, are not unbiased. And racism, sexism, homophobia, and general discrimination happens: this, we cannot argue. 

We cannot simply state everyone will be successful if they just prove their worth, or if they just work hard enough. If this were the case, Hillary Rodham Clinton would have been the President of the United States: and possibly, not the first woman to hold the position. If this were the case, our country’s first black president would not have taken office as late as 2008. 

Individualism is founded on the idea that personal successes are rewarded based on nothing but merit. Essentially, if you deserve recognition, you will receive it, based upon the natural order of society. 

Tell me, can you think of many situations where this is actually true? If it were, management positions in non-profit organizations would collect massive amounts of taxpayer dollars, because those people are doing the right thing, and we should reward them with enough money to do their jobs properly. 

If this were true, there would be more stories about black kids dropping out of college but managing to become CEOs of multi-billion dollar companies: a la Bill Gates, Michael Dell, Steve Jobs, Mark Zuckerburg, Evan Williams, Larry Ellison, Henry Ford, the list continues. 

If this were true, the wage gap wouldn’t exist: because we would pay our workers on merit and intelligence, not on gender and race (not to mention disability status, maternal status, etc). 

If this were true, the Riddle ratio wouldn’t exist: statistically, both men and women are interested in math and science, and we’d thus have even numbers of each in every major. 

But instead, the majority of successful college dropouts are white men. Women make 79 cents to every man’s dollar (and that’s just white women), and the gap exists in the first place because we consider certain work to be “women’s” work (nursing, dental hygienists, librarians) and certain work to be “men’s” work (surgeons, trash collectors, police officers). And the Riddle ratio sits comfortably at 1:4 women to men overall, dipping to as low as 1:6 in some majors. 

We cannot hope to succeed as individuals if we, as individuals, are not considered to be on the same level to begin with. Individualism is irrelevant when inequality still exists. 

Final Approach